By employing the unique phenological feature of winter wheat extracted from peak before winter (PBW) and the advantages of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with high temporal resolution and intermediate spatial resolution, a remote sensing-based model for mapping winter wheat on the North China Plain was built through integration with Landsat images and land-use data. First, a phenological window, PBW was drawn from time-series MODIS data. Next, feature extraction was performed for the PBW to reduce feature dimension and enhance its information. Finally, a regression model was built to model the relationship of the phenological feature and the sample data. The amount of information of the PBW was evaluated and compared with that of the main peak (MP). The relative precision of the mapping reached up to 92% in comparison to the Landsat sample data, and ranged between 87 and 96% in comparison to the statistical data. These results were sufficient to satisfy the accuracy requirements for winter wheat mapping at a large scale. Moreover, the proposed method has the ability to obtain the distribution information for winter wheat in an earlier period than previous studies. This study could throw light on the monitoring of winter wheat in China by using unique phenological feature of winter wheat.