This study examined (a) the potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent academic achievement, and (b) the potential moderating role of gender. Sixth through eighth graders in rural China (n = 815, mean age = 12.55 years) reported on harsh parenting, effortful control, and classroom engagement. Parents also reported on each other's harsh parenting. Academic achievement was assessed by students' test scores and teacher-rated academic performance. Results of structural equation modeling revealed gender differences in patterns of association among the model variables. Harsh parenting was negatively and directly associated with academic achievement for both boys and girls. It was also negatively and indirectly associated with academic achievement via effortful control and classroom engagement sequentially, forming a common indirect "path" for boys and girls. The indirect negative effect of harsh parenting on boys' academic achievement was mainly realized through the mediator of effortful control, whereas this same indirect effect for girls was mainly realized through the mediator of classroom engagement. Jointly, effortful control and classroom engagement precipitates more indirect effects for boys than for girls in the association between harsh parenting and academic achievement. The discussion analyzes the potential "paths" from harsh parenting to adolescent academic achievement, as well as gender differences in these "paths." The current study has implications for teachers and parents eager to improve students' classroom engagement and academic achievement.
Guided by an integrative model of Jung's personality type theory, Kirton's adaption-innovation theory, and Kaufman's creativity domain theory, this study examined the mediating role of creative styles in the association between personality types and scholarly creativity in undergraduate students. 495 undergraduate students (305 girls, mean age = 19.55 years) completed questionnaires on personality types, creative styles and scholarly creativity. Results indicated that the innovative creative style was positively associated with Extroversion and Perceiving personality types, and negatively associated with Feeling type. The innovative creative style, but not the adaptive creative style, was positively associated with scholarly creativity. Furthermore, Extroversion and Perceiving types were positively and indirectly associated with scholarly creativity completely through the mediator of innovative creative style, whereas Feeling type was negatively and indirectly associated with scholarly creativity partially through the mediator of innovative creative style. This study enhances our understanding of the ways in which personality types could affect undergraduates' scholarly creativity. These findings suggest that undergraduate students of different personality types tend to perform creative work in different creative styles, further influencing how much scholarly creativity they could demonstrate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.