[Zhao, Wei; Ding, Rui; Gao, Xiali; Luo, Liqun] Department of Sociology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China;[Sun, Jingjing] Hubei Institute of Economic and Social Development, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China
[Luo, Liqun] Cent China Normal Univ, Dept Sociol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.
Socioeconomic status;Offspring sex ratio;Trivers-Willard hypothesis;Peasants
According to the logic of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1) current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head's father's socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2) low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high-or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3) as family heads' status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.
Many studies support the proposition that early cosocialization with opposite-sex children has the effect of inhibiting later mutual sexual attraction, but the existence of a period in the life cycle in which individuals are sensitive to the effect of early cosocialization has been a matter of controversy. Drawing on earlier traditional psychological research, and on more recent work guided by parental investment theory, we hypothesized that only for maternal perinatal association (MPA)-absent males a less-than- around-three-years age difference with the sister can predict stronger aversion to sibling incest. The results corroborated the hypothesis. The results can be interpreted as support for the existence of a sensitive period as well as for the potent role of MPA. Cross-cultural comparative studies were called on to further test the hypothesis.
[Zhang, Dawei; Jin, Xiaohong; Xu, Na] Cent China Normal Univ, Sociol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Dawei] Cent China Normal Univ, China Australia Social Work Res Ctr, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Dawei] Cent China Normal Univ, Res Ctr Social Dev & Social Policy, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Dawei] Cent China Normal Univ, Coll Sociol, 152 Luoyu Rd, Wuhan 430079, Peoples R China.;[Goodlin-Fahncke, Wendi] Univ Toledo, Criminal Justice Program, Toledo, OH USA.
[Zhang, Dawei] Cent China Normal Univ, Coll Sociol, 152 Luoyu Rd, Wuhan 430079, Peoples R China.
community corrections;China;community correctional officers;control orientation;offenders
This study focuses on two primary control orientations in correctionspunishment and rehabilitation. Based on data collected from 225 community correctional officers in Hubei, China, in 2013, officers' control orientations toward offenders and the effects of job characteristics, agency characteristics, and sociodemographics on these orientations were investigated. The research found that Chinese community correctional officers integrated punishment and rehabilitation orientations. Agency characteristics and rehabilitation views affected the officers' views, while only one (age) of the job characteristics and demographic variables was significant.
The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts that high-status parents will bias their investment to sons, whereas low-status parents will bias their investment to daughters. Among humans, tests of this hypothesis have yielded mixed results. This study tests the hypothesis using data collected among contemporary peasants in Central South China. We use current family status (rated by our informants) and father's former class identity (assigned by the Chinese Communist Party in the early 1950s) as measures of parental status, and proportion of sons in offspring and offspring's years of education as measures of parental investment. Results show that (i) those families with a higher former class identity such as landlord and rich peasant tend to have a higher socioeconomic status currently, (ii) high-status parents are more likely to have sons than daughters among their biological offspring, and (iii) in higher-status families, the years of education obtained by sons exceed that obtained by daughters to a larger extent than in lower-status families. Thus, the first assumption and the two predictions of the hypothesis are supported by this study. This article contributes a contemporary Chinese case to the testing of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL,2014年49(1):143-158 ISSN：0010-3802
[Yan, Miu Chung] Univ British Columbia, Sch Social Work, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada.;[Zhang, Da Wei] Cent China Normal Univ, Coll Sociol, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Da Wei] Cent China Normal Univ, Res Ctr Social Dev & Social Policy, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Da Wei] Hubei Econ & Social Dev Res Inst, Wuhan, Peoples R China.
[Yan, Miu Chung] Univ British Columbia, Sch Social Work, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canada.
In the early 1950s, China developed an urban governance system, which always had a dual function: providing community services and exercising sociopolitical control, to ensure stability of an organized society. The economic reforms of the late 1970s, however, made the system obsolete. In 2000, China adopted a community-building policy to renew its urban governance system, in which residents committees (RCs), self-governing mass organizations, have been assigned a major role. However, as the base of the system, RCs have been overburdened by numerous administrative responsibilities. Over-administration consequentially challenges their self-governing mandate. To resolve these double predicament, community work stations (CWSs) are being tried. This paper examines four CWS models and discusses the impacts of CWS on RCs and on the urban governance system. The paper argues that as an incremental policy response in a social engineering process, the role of CWSs in Chinas urban governance system is yet to be decided, particularly when they may pose challenges to the original policy intent of the community construction policy.