In Shaoyang urban dialect, sentences with ＂qing（请）＂ are usually used as the marked passive sentences whose typical pattern is ＂NP1＋qing＋NP2＋VP2＂. Such a constitution is charac- teristic of two outstanding aspects： the complexity of VP2 and the obligatoriness of NP2. Passive sen- tences with ＂qing＂ have two basic pragmatic functions： 1）emotional function, which expresses the speakers’subjective emotion and unexpected feeling;2）positioning function, which is used by the speaker to position the patient as a victim role to imply the patient＇s inability to control their behavior. Like the formation of passive category in many other languages, passivity of ＂qing＂ in Shaoyang urban dialect has developed from causativity, namely requests〉causativity〉unwilling permission〉passivi- ty.
There were two entries： the Xiang（乡）, Jiuye（救也） and Die（叠）, Huaiye（怀也） in Guangya （广雅）, which were all annotated as doubtful and uncertain terms by Wang nian-sun（王念孙）. The essay argues that although some scholars attempted after Wang（乡） to make the entries understood clearly, yet they all failed to do so. The essay suggests that in the first entry Xiang（乡）is Xiang（嚮 or 向）, Jiu（救） is Qiu（求） as phonetic loan characters, they actually mean pursue. In the other one Huai （怀） is Huai （坏）, its meaning is fall and break, as a synonym of Die （叠） in meaning.